The Republic of Kurdistan
"The best way to pay respect to our martyrs is to continue their struggle." - Dr. Ghassemlou

Anniversary of execution of President Qazi Muhammad

31st March is the 71st anniversary of executions of Kurdish Republic President, founder and the leader of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (PDKI).

Qazi Mohammad’s last wills and behest to Kurdish nation, in his will asked Kurdish nation to unite and empower themselves and never trust enemies. Prior to his hanging he asked the officer do not blindfold me and “I would like to proudly look at my beloved land to the last minute of my life. You are hanging one Qazi Mohammad but I ensure you that each drop of my blood will be a thousand of Qazi Mohammad. I ask Kurdish nation to strive for Kurdistan independency. Long live for Kurd and Kurdistan”.

The republic was proclaimed on January 22nd 1946 at the central square “Chwar Chira” of the city of Mahabad in Eastern Kurdistan. The Iranian force invaded the capital Mahabad on December 15th, 1946, after the invasion by the Shah’s force Qazi Mohammad and the Shah’s Regime of Iran had arrested a number of ministers of the Kurdish government.

Republic of Kurdistan was the first proclaimed modern Kurdish state in Eastern Kurdistan. There were some other proclaimed Kurdish states in the other parts of the Kurdish regions such as…

  • EMIRATE of SORAN 1816-1835/ Southern Kurdistan
  • KINGDOM of KURDISTAN 1922-1924/ Southern Kurdistan
  • REPUBLIC of ARARAT 1927-1931/ Northern Kurdistan
  • REPUBLIC of KURDISTAN January-December 1946 / Eastern Kurdistan

The Republic of Kurdistan is marked as the most significant event of the history of the Kurds.  Even though the republic was short-lived, it opened the door for entering another stage of the Kurdish struggle, especially the Kurds in Iran, to find a democratic way for gaining their rights.  The President of the republic, Qazi Muhammad, has been, arguably, the symbol of the Kurdish issue, not only in Iran but also in the other parts of Kurdistan in Iraq, Syrian and Turkey.  The aim of the republic was to get autonomy for the Kurds in Iran under a democratic Iranian government. During the short-lived republic.

  • •Kurdish language became the official language at the administrations. For the first time in the history, Kurds could actually study in their own mother tongue.
  • •Serval newspapers and Helaleh magazine for women and Grugali Mindalan for the children and number of other periodicals was published in Kurdish language.
  • •More importantly, schools for girls were established, and Kurdish women got the opportunity to play an active role in the political and social life for the first time.
  • •Trade with the USSR expanded and the economy began to improve.
  • •Schools for the minority Jews, Azaries and Armenians opened and encouraged in their native languages.
  • •The top jobs in the administration, which had until then been held by non-local Persians and Azerbaijanis were given to the Kurds
  • •The Imperial Army and Police were dissolved and replaced with National Army and Peshmerga forces.

Qazi quote: I am proud of my execution, even at that moment when my body hangs from the rope, my shoes are above my enemy’s head. Rest in peace Qazi Mohammad.

After the collapse of the short-lived Republic, Shah’s regime closed down Kurdish printing press, banned all education in Kurdish language and burned all the Kurdish books they could find.

The whole leadership of the republic was arrested and hanged in different cities in Kurdistan. President Qazi Mohammad, together with Sadri Qazi and Seyfi Qazi, were hanged at the “Chwar Chira” central square of Mahabad. They were left hanging for over two days. This was a vindictive act by the Tehran regime against the leaders of a popular, progressive and largely peaceful nationalist movement.

While the Iranian regime succeeded in oppressing Kurds for generations, they also martyred those who would inspire the Kurdish people’s struggle for freedom and independence throughout Kurdistan. This republic will forever be part of the Kurdish national identity and its collective consciousness.

Although, Qazi Mohammad had been executed for sake of his nation 71 years ago but today throughout Kurdistan, people memorize him and his flag is flying all over the Kurdistan.